Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) states that the freedoms and livelihoods of people throughout the world cannot be compromised or denied based on “colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” The list of characteristics enumerated in the UDHR seems to protect members of all possible social categories; however, Article 2 fails to explicitly mention sexual orientation as a personal trait protected from discrimination and violence. By not specifically citing sexual minorities in the Declaration, the U.N. relegates to individual states the power to decide how they will treat their lesbian and gay citizens.
Carlino, Ryan (author); Grinnell College. Anthropology Department.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union represents the single most significant event in world history since the end of World War II, as it signaled the end of the Cold War and caused the entry of 15 new states into the international system. With the ever-present threat of nuclear war between the super-powers removed, the world is now safer. Nevertheless, while we, as citizens of the world, are better off in a less belligerent international environment, the population of the former Soviet Union is now suffering through a difficult period of social, economic and political upheaval. What can the West do to assist Russia?
Chandra, Uday (author); Bateman, Bradley W., 1956- (advisor); Bateman, Bradley W., 1956- (advisor); Bateman, Bradley W., 1956- (advisor); Bateman, Bradley W., 1956- (advisor)
This paper analyzes the linkages between ethics and economics in the writings of Aristotle, Smith and Sen, and then provides an alternative paradigm for addressing ethical or normative concerns within contemporary economics
Throughout her career, the photographer Carrie Mae Weems has used the medium to create narratives which bring marginalized people into the center of focus. Often using her own body as the subject, she works to reconfigure the historically determined power structures that objectify or erase the experiences of African American women. In this way, Weems mobilizes herself as artist and as subject in order to engage with issues much larger than herself. Her work "Untitled (Kitchen Table Series)" offers a powerful study of the way in which photography, self-portraiture, and self-presentation provide paths for confusing and subverting dominant cultural narratives. This essay asserts that Weems’s photographs work against masculinist and racist modes of spectatorship through their assertion of black women as subjects, producers, makers of art and of their own representation. Moreover, Weems interrupts modes of spectatorship which normally allow these representations to go unquestioned by inviting intimacy between the viewer and the subjects of the photographs while simultaneously creating spectatorial distance through an emphasis on the constructedness of cultural narratives. This structure forces the viewer to situate themselves as subject and perpetuator of such narratives, and thus works to reconfigure racist and sexist modes of spectatorship.
River channels naturally vary over time in the meandering path they follow over land. On the Skunk River in central Iowa, human influence in the form of channelization has had a profound impact on this natural variation. This project characterizes the historical changes to the channels of the North and South branches of the Skunk River. GIS software was used to extract the river path from historical maps and aerial photos at four different time periods ranging from the mid 1800s to present day. This software was also used to present a visualization showing how channelization has stopped the natural variation in the river paths. The total length of the channels is used to indicate how much they have been straightened. Results show that the combined length of both branches is 42.6 miles shorter now than it was in the mid 1800s.
The size of the automorphism group of a compact Riemann surface of genus g > 1 is bounded by 84(g-1). Curves with automorphism group of size this bound are called Hurwitz curves. In many cases the automorphism group of these curves is the projective special linear group PSL(2,q). We present a decomposition of the Jacobian varieties for all curves of this type and prove that no such Jacobian variety is simple.
This paper examines Diego Velázquez's portraits of Margarita Teresa and Baltasar Carlos to achieve an understanding of the children¹s political and gendered identities. I first turned to primary documents to understand Velázquez¹s general role at court. I then examined secondary literature to investigate the distinctive qualities of and perspectives on childhood in seventeenth century Spanish court and how they developed with the age of the child. During the reign of King Philip IV, Spanish imperial portraiture glorified the royal children as promises for the future success of the empire. I closely examined two portraits of each child, focusing on their clothing, posture, accompanying props, and setting. Although Velázquez subtly represents the gender and power differences between the two children from their first portraits at age two, he polarizes these distinctions as they age, representing Baltasar Carlos as increasingly active and masculine and representing Margarita Teresa as increasingly feminine and ready for marriage by the age of five.
We study the properties of spatially dependent Newton-Cartan gravity under noninertial, nonrelativistic reference frames. We define the transformation by an element of the set consisting of a rotation matrix which is a continuous function of x and t, a linear transformation function of x and t, and a constant time translation. The set of these transformation elements has the structure of an infinite dimensional semi-group. This semi-group is a generalization of the Galilean line group discussed in . We prove the properties of this semi-group. We calculate the Ricci tensor for this Newtownian spacetime. We calculate the coefficients in the transformed autoparallel equation, and show all three terms, including the term quadratic in the velocity, are nonzero in the general case. We show how these terms simplify to the autoparallel terms from the previous paper in the case of no spatial dependence.
This study explores the reemergence of company towns in American society through the analysis of slaughtering communities in rural Iowa. The return of company towns occurred because of a market climate that made their monopsony position in these communities attractive to firms, and these firms exhibit many of the same exploitative and thus, problematic traits as the historic company towns of previous eras. This paper concludes by discussing the policy implications and options for addressing this market failure. It is recommended that the federal government raise the minimum wage for those employed in the meatpacking industry.
Frerick, Austin Ronald (author); Ketter, Jean A. (advisor); Werner, Timothy (advisor); Ketter, Jean A. (advisor); Werner, Timothy (advisor); Ketter, Jean A. (advisor); Werner, Timothy (advisor); Ketter, Jean A. (advisor); Werner, Timothy (advisor)
This study analyzes several rural school districts in the state of Iowa that have experienced relatively sudden demographic shifts in recent years with schools shifting from an almost totally white, English speaking population to a continually growing number of Hispanic and ESL/LEP students. Moreover, all of these districts are located in communities that are home to slaughterhouses; changes in the meatpacking industry have brought many Hispanic families to these communities. Both qualitative and quantitative data was gathered including observations, interviews, enrollment, and achievement figures. This study found the presence of an achievement gap, variation in LEP/ELL programs, occurrence of white flight, and great deal of power held by the slaughterhouses in these districts. However, the fact that these districts continue to become more majority-minority, in essence segregated, is the most pressing issue found in these districts. I then discuss the implications of this segregation and review the policy options available to address it. I recommend a hybrid option of forced consolidation with community schools.
This paper analyzes the effects of higher international commodity prices and taxes on the Honduran economy using a dynamic recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model developed by the International Food Policy Research. By allowing for labor force growth, productivity growth, and capital accumulation the model describes the changes that need to happen to maintain equilibrium in the Honduran economy over the course of 10 years. The first set of simulations consists of a 50% increase in the international export prices of cagex (palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, shrimp, fish and other seafood, and vegetables), ccoff (coffee berries and beans), and cpfood (processed food products such as beef, sugar, rice, tobacco, alcohol, flour, beef, etc) and a 50% increase in the import prices of cchem (oil) and cagric (corn, beans, cereal, unprocessed tobacco and tobacco leaves, and wood derivatives). All else equal, average GDP growth is higher by .09, .04, and .04 percentage points each year due to the rise in the export prices of cagex, cpfood, and ccoff. The benefits are small because higher export prices increase the value of the currency, thereby lowering the international competitiveness of other export sectors. The textile sector, which constitutes nearly half of total exports, is damaged the most. When the international import prices of cagric and cchem are increased by 50%, average GDP growth is annually lower by .04 and .37 percentage points.